On this day in History October 20, 1803: By a vote of 24-to-7, the United States Senate ratifies a treaty with France which resulted in the Louisiana Purchase. From what started with an attempt to purchase the city of New Orleans, the transaction proved invaluable. As you can see from the map above, the treaty led to the acquisition of land that doubled in size of the United States, adding territory that would become the states of Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and parts of Minnesota, New Mexico, Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado. 

The price that was decided for the purchase of the land was $15 million dollars which resulted in the The United States acquiring approximately 827,000 square miles of land west of the Mississippi River.

For Further Reading:

Given Jefferson’s strict interpretation of the Constitution, it’s interesting to see how linked sources describe this rather loose action.

From Monticello:

Exact boundaries would have to be negotiated with Spain and England and so would not be set for several years, and Jefferson’s Cabinet members argued that the constitutional amendment he proposed was not necessary. As time for ratification of the purchase treaty grew short, Jefferson accepted his Cabinet’s counsel and rationalized: “It is the case of a guardian, investing the money of his ward in purchasing an important adjacent territory; and saying to him when of age, I did this for your good.”

From the Bill of Rights Institute:

Jefferson had always feared the costs of loose construction of the powers delegated to the national government in the Constitution, and the Constitution did not provide for the incorporation of new lands into the U.S. Jefferson urged bringing the issue to the people to approve with a constitutional amendment, but a special session of Congress disregarded his draft amendment. The Senate ratified the Louisiana Purchase Treaty in October of 1803. While Jefferson did his best to follow what he believed was proper constitutional procedure, not enough of his contemporaries agreed with him and he eventually assented.

The second account makes it seem TJ was forced instead of convinced. Here’s what Sourcewatch has to say about the source:

The Bill of Rights Institute, established in September 1999 by the Charles G. Koch Foundation, is a Virginia based nonprofit launched by Koch Family Foundations that promotes a teaching a conservative interpretation of the Constitution in schools.

You learn something new every day!

Jefferson definitely knew the purchase was unconstitutional, which is why he proposed the amendment. But then he figured out he would need the cooperation of the Federalists to get it ratified (and they were smart enough to realize the Louisiana Purchase would lead to the spread of slavery and southern power) that eventually he was like, “Fuck it, it’s pennies for the acre.”






Neil DeGrasse Tyson Ruins Your Zombie Fantasies Forever - Video

Love this bit

"just sayin’"

He’s thought about it though. One of the greatest minds of our generation sat down one day and was like “wait, could zombies exist?” And then he did the science thing and was like “nah we’re good.”

(via countessdesangre)


Cottage On A Landscape, Inishmaan, Aran Islands, County Galway, Ireland


Cottage On A Landscape, Inishmaan, Aran Islands, County Galway, Ireland

(via dorasireland)


(Source: chelsahhdelic, via wilwheaton)


When a student gives me a smart aleck answer


I’m all like:

"I am better than I was.
I will be better than I am."

— (140/365) by (DS)

(via rainyseptember)



I love Ron so much

(Source: best-of-memes, via annies-booobs)

"From iron cometh strength. From strength cometh will. From will cometh faith. From faith cometh honour. From honour cometh iron."

— Perturabo (via yggdrasill—)





If something is ‘old as fuck’ then it’s about 1.2 billion years old because that’s when life evolved sexual reproduction.


However, if something is “old as balls” it’s only about 65 million years old, when placental mammals began to evolve proper testicles.

(via archaeo-geek)